Section 321:

Logistics and Cost Saving Opportunities for Online Retailers

November 28, 2023
Return Strategy
By Robert Domagala

The ecommerce world continues to rapidly expand as consumer demand for variety and convenience drives more and more users to the infinite aisles online. Alongside the ability to reach more and more customers in new global markets, businesses often find themselves navigating a complex continuum of rules and regulations when it comes to international trade. One regulation that is proving to be a game-changer for many ecommerce brands is Section 321. 

Section 321 is a provision within the United States Customs and Border Protection regulations that allows ecommerce brands to streamline their cross-border operations and expand their global reach by creating new opportunities to save on import duty fees for their customer orders.

In this article we'll begin to unpack what exactly Section 321 entails, its main rules and exceptions, and how, as a direct to consumer brand, you can leverage it to increase your profitability.

Understanding Section 321

Section 321, sometimes referred to as "de minimis" in the customs world, is a provision that allows for the duty-free entry of certain low-value shipments into the United States. Specifically, it applies to shipments with a total value of $800 or less. This means that items, such as products ordered by international customers from an ecommerce brand, can enter the U.S. without incurring traditional import duties and taxes, provided that each customer order being imported into the US, per day, is less than $800.

The Main Rules of Section 321

Value Limit: As mentioned above, Section 321 applies to shipments with a total declared value of $800 or less. It's important to remember that this value limit includes both the cost of the goods as well as the shipping charges to your customer. If the total all-in cost in $800 or less, then your shipment can qualify for duty-free entry into the United States.

One Shipment, One Day: Another key rule is that the $800 value threshold applies to a single shipment or shipment group entering the U.S. on the same day. This means that if your brand sends multiple shipments to the same customer on the same day, they must be combined to determine whether they fall within the Section 321 exemption. Send a single customer two separate orders totaling $800 (with shipping) then you’re good! Send that same customer one order totalling $1000, or three orders of $300 each (in a single day), and those shipments won’t qualify for Section 321.

Consignee Limitations: Section 321 shipments are intended to be for personal use by the consignee (the consignee is your customer). It is not intended for commercial or resale purposes, so this probably won’t work for your wholesale or bulk orders.

Compliance with Other Regulations: While Section 321 offers a significant advantage to ecommerce brands, brands still need to ensure that their shipments comply with other relevant regulations and restrictions, such as product safety and intellectual property laws. Section 321 exists to create import opportunities that remain pursuant to all regional rules and regulations, so you shouldn’t consider this a way to skirt those other requirements.

Exceptions to Section 321

There’s usually a catch or other requirements to be aware of, and while Section 321 can be a powerful tool for ecommerce brands to reduce shipping costs and increase profitability, it's essential to be aware of the exceptions that may disqualify a shipment from the exemption:

Value Over $800: Shipments with a total value exceeding $800 are not eligible for Section 321. In such cases, traditional import duties and taxes will apply.

Restricted or Prohibited Items: Controlled substances, firearms, counterfeit goods (and probably a slew of other regulated or naughty things) are not eligible for Section 321. Make sure you’re aware of these restrictions to avoid legal issues.

Commercial Use: This regulation is meant to benefit direct-to-consumer commerce, and if your shipment is intended for commercial purposes or resale, it does not qualify for Section 321. Personal use by your customer is a key requirement.

Multiple Shipments on Different Days: Section 321 applies to shipments received by the same consignee on the same day. If your brand sends multiple shipments on different days, they may not qualify for the exemption.

How Section 321 Benefits Ecommerce Brands

Now that we understand some of the basic parameters of Section 321, how can your brand benefit from it? Ecommerce brands can realize numerous benefits from leveraging Section 321 as part of their international trade strategy:

Cost Savings: One of the most significant advantages is the potential for cost savings. By exempting shipments valued at $800 or less from import duties and taxes, e-commerce brands can offer more competitive prices to their international customers. While this may not work out for luxury retailers selling goods priced well over $800, for many startup and scaling brands with average order sizes below the $800 limit, the potential cost savings on import duties can be significant. Savings to reinvest in your brand, or pass on to your customers!

Staying Competitive: The proliferation of D2C brands makes ecommerce a highly competitive category, and finding points of differentiation that will help your brand win its share of customers’ wallets is tough. Offering duty-free shipments can give you a competitive edge in attracting and retaining customers, particularly those who are cost-conscious.

Operational Efficiencies: Section 321 simplifies the customs clearance process for low-value shipments. Your brand can benefit from faster clearance times and reduced administrative overhead, making cross-border operations more efficient. 

Improved Customer Experience: Providing faster and more cost-effective deliveries through Section 321 can significantly enhance the overall customer experience. Customers love it when a brand delivers their goods quickly, when costs are contained, and when their expectations are well managed - Faster shipping times and lower costs almost always contribute to higher customer satisfaction and loyalty, so leveraging Section 321 could provide you with a customer experience advantage over your competition.


Section 321 is a valuable and increasingly popular tool that ecommerce brands can use to their advantage in a very competitive market. By understanding its main rules and exceptions, and integrating it into your strategy, your brand may be able to enjoy cost savings, a competitive advantage, streamlined operations, and an enhanced customer experience. All of this should serve your growth and expansion, and make your cross border trade easier.

For more information:

Rob Domagala, Head of Business Development

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